Health Concerns with Batteries
Become familiar with the do's and don’ts when handling batteries.
Batteries are safe, but caution is necessary when touching damaged cells and when handling lead acid systems that have access to lead and sulfuric acid. Several countries label lead acid as hazardous material, and rightly so. Lead can be a health hazard if not properly handled.
Lead is a toxic metal that can enter the body by inhalation of lead dust or ingestion when touching the mouth with lead-contaminated hands. If leaked onto the ground, acid and lead particles contaminate the soil and become airborne when dry. Children and fetuses of pregnant women are most vulnerable to lead exposure because their bodies are developing. Excessive levels of lead can affect a child’s growth, cause brain damage, harm kidneys, impair hearing and induce behavioral problems. In adults, lead can cause memory loss and lower the ability to concentrate, as well as harm the reproductive system. Lead is also known to cause high blood pressure, nerve disorders, and muscle and joint pain. Researchers speculate that Ludwig van Beethoven became ill and died because of lead poisoning.
By 2017, members of the International Lead Association (ILA) want to keep the lead blood level of workers in mining, smelting, refining and recycling below 30 micrograms per deciliter (30µg/dl). In 2014, the average participating employee checked in at 15.6µg/dl, but 4.8 percent were above 30µg/dl. (Source Batteries & Energy Storage Technology, Summer 2015.)
The sulfuric acid in a lead acid battery is highly corrosive and is more harmful than acids used in most other battery systems. Contact with eye can cause permanent blindness; swallowing damages internal organs that can lead to death. First aid treatment calls for flushing the skin for 10–15 minutes with large amounts of water to cool the affected tissue and to prevent secondary damage. Immediately remove contaminated clothing and thoroughly wash the underlying skin. Always wear protective equipment when handling sulfuric acid.
Cadmium used in nickel-cadmium batteries is considered more harmful than lead if ingested. Workers at NiCd manufacturing plants in Japan have been experiencing health problems from prolonged exposure to the metal, and governments have banned disposal of nickel-cadmium batteries in landfills. The soft, whitish metal that occurs naturally in the soil can damage kidneys. Cadmium can be absorbed through the skin by touching a spilled battery. Since most NiCd batteries are sealed, there are no health risks in handling intact cells; caution is required when working with an open battery.
Nickel-metal-hydride is considered non-toxic and the only concern is the electrolyte. Although toxic to plants, nickel is not harmful to humans.
Lithium-ion is also benign — the battery contains little toxic material. Nevertheless, caution is required when working with a damaged battery. When handling a spilled battery, do not touch your mouth, nose or eyes. Wash your hands thoroughly.
Keep small batteries out of children’s reach. Children younger than four are the most likely to swallow batteries, and the most common types that are ingested are button cells. Each year in the United States alone, more than 2,800 children are treated in emergency rooms for swallowing button batteries. According to a 2015 report, serious injuries and deaths from swallowing batteries have increased nine-fold in the last decade.
The battery often gets stuck in the esophagus (the tube that passes food). Water or saliva creates an electrical current that can trigger a chemical reaction producing hydroxide, a caustic ion that causes serious burns to the surrounding tissue. Doctors often misdiagnose the symptoms, which can reveal themselves as fever, vomiting, poor appetite and weariness. Batteries that make it through the esophagus often move through the digestive tract with little or no lasting damage. The advice to a parent is to choose safe toys and to keep small batteries away from young children.
Keep button batteries out of sight and reach of children. Remote controls, singing greeting cards, watches, hearing aids, thermometers, toys and electric keys may contain these batteries.
Similar to pharmaceutical products, keep loose batteries locked away to prevent access by small children.
Communicate the danger of swallowing button batteries with your children, as well as caregivers, friends, family members and babysitters.
If you suspect your child has ingested a battery, go to the hospital immediately. Wait for a medical assessment before allowing the child to eat and drink.
Charging batteries in living quarters should be safe, and this also applies to lead acid. Ventilate the area regularly as you would a kitchen when cooking. Lead acid produces some hydrogen gas but the amount is minimal when charged correctly. Hydrogen gas becomes explosive at a concentration of 4 percent. This would only be achieved if large lead acid batteries were charged in a sealed room.
Over-charging a lead acid battery can produce hydrogen sulfide. The gas is colorless, very poisonous, flammable and has the odor of rotten eggs. Hydrogen sulfide also occurs naturally during the breakdown of organic matter in swamps and sewers; it is present in volcanic gases, natural gas and some well waters. Being heavier than air, the gas accumulates at the bottom of poorly ventilated spaces. Although noticeable at first, the sense of smell deadens the sensation with time and potential victims may be unaware of its presence.
As a simple guideline, hydrogen sulfide becomes harmful to human life if the odor is noticeable. Turn off the charger, vent the facility and stay outside until the odor disappears.
Used Courtesy of the Battery University